This chapter describes a wide range of technologies for contactbased microelectromechanical system memsnanoelectromechanical system nems switches and their applications to logic, memory, and power devices. The cnt is cantilevered or suspended over a dlc electrode. Accepted manuscript fabrication of a nanoelectromechanical. Tunneling nanoelectromechanical switches based on compressible molecular thin films farnaz niroui, annie i. Estimations of nanocontact areas of 2t nem switches with ge and mo 6 s 3 i 6 nanowires as switching elements and au contact electrodes, performed using a convenient approximation for the maugisdugdale theory of adhesion proposed by carpick, ogletree and salmeron, showed that the typical contact area between the switching element and the au. Low voltage nanoelectromechanical switches based on. Sic nanowire plays an important role in the fabrication of nems and was studied for high frequency nems applications via topdown methods. Nanoelectromechanical nem relays control current flow by nanometerscale motion to make or break physical contact between electrodes, and offer.
Advances in the field include improvements in fabrication processes and new methods for actuating and detecting motion at the. Experimentally, we use an in situ nanotribometry method, which enables nanoscale visualization of sliding contacts inside the transmission electron microscope tem. Abstractnanoelectromechanical nem switches are a candidate to replace solidstate transistors due to their low power consumption. Efficient fpgas using nanoelectromechanical relays chen chen1, roozbeh parsa1, nishant patil1, soogine chong1, kerem akarvardar1, j provine1, david lewis3, jeff watt4, roger t.
Graphene based nanoelectromechanical nem switches have been fabricated and explored primarily 2terminal, oneoff laboratory scale demonstrations 1116. These switches operated by deflecting a suspended graphene membrane with a sourcedrain voltage and measuring the current once contact was made, but little success has been. However, the operating principles of nem switches and semiconductor switches are fundamentally different. These equations are valid for a pullin mode relay, that is if gdg0.
Nanoelectromechanical systems nems are a class of devices integrating electrical and mechanical functionality on the nanoscale. The estimations show that in nem contact switches with 2t singleclamped architectures shown in fig. Modeling nanoelectromechanical switches with random. Carboncarbon contacts for robust nanoelectromechanical. Introduction nanoelectromechanical systems nems are sensors, actuators, devices and systems with critical dimensions of the order ofnanometres. Nanoelectromechanical digital logic circuits using curved cantilever switches with amorphouscarboncoated contacts cl ayala, d grogg, a bazigos, sj bleiker, m fernandezbolanos. Nanoelectromechanical nem relays control current flow by nanometerscale motion to make or break physical contact between electrodes. Nanoelectromechanical switches work by using electrostatic forces to mechanically deflect an active element into physical contact with an opposing electrode, thus changing the state of the device. Herein, classical molecular dynamics simulations are used to examine nanoscale adsorbate reactions during the cyclic opening and closing of nanoelectromechanical system nems switches. Nanoelectromechanical switching with single walled nanotubes 1 introduction since the 1960s there has been an economic push for miniaturization in the integrated circuit industry 1. Prediction of ultrahigh onoff ratio nanoelectromechanical switching from covalentlybound c 60 chains. Nanoelectromechanical systems are evolving, with new scientific studies and technical applications emerging. Nanoelectromechanical switching with single walled. Nanoelectromechanical nem relay devices and technology for ultralow.
Tunneling nanoelectromechanical switches mit technology. Contactmode mechanical switches relays miniaturized down to the truly nanometer scale, enabled by the emerging nanoelectromechanical systems nems, are being actively studied as an alternative to the currently dominating cmos transistor switches for future ultralowpower applications 16. Even though both clamped and pinned states are known to occur in nem switches this earlier work is often ignored in later literature 3, 17. Micro and nanoelectromechanical contact switches for logic. Thegateswidthsandgeometriescan be altered to explore the effects of varied coupling strength and contact area, as illustrated in figure 1a. Nextgeneration nanoelectromechanical switch contact materials article pdf available in ieee nanotechnology magazine 91. Nanoelectromechanical nem switches are similar to conventional semiconductor switches in that they can be used as. Nanoelectromechanical switchcmos hybrid technology and its. Nanoelectromechanical contact switches request pdf. We specifically consider pt, which is often used as an electrode material for nems. Nanoelectromechanical switch in coplanar waveguide inventors robert blick, hua qin, hyunseok kim since its founding in 1925 as the patenting and licensing organization for the university of wisconsinmadison, warf has been working with business and industry to transform university research into products that benefit society. Abbasi 1, taehoon kim1,2, a, sivasubramanian somu, b, hailong wang1,3, b, zhimin chai1, moneesh upmanyu 1 and ahmed busnaina 1. Nems form the next logical miniaturization step from socalled microelectromechanical systems, or mems devices. A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the.
Nanoelectromechanical contact switches are broadly categorized. National science foundation nanoscale science and engineering center for highrate nanomanufacturing. Sun j, schmidt me, muruganathan m, chong hm, mizuta h. The present invention is directed to a nanoelectromechanical nem switch comprising two electrodes 12, 18, wherein. A brief discussion of the results will be given in section 5. However, the reliability of the contact interface limits the commercialization of nem switches, since for practical purposes, the. Precise alignment of single nanowires and fabrication of. Stacking of nanocrystalline graphene for nanoelectro mechanical. Performance limits of nanoelectromechanical switches. Performance limits of nanoelectromechanical switches nems. Nanoelectromechanical nem switches have the potential to complement or replace traditional cmos transistors in the area of ultralowpower digital electronics. Nanoelectromechanical nem eecs at uc berkeley university.
Stiction in nanoelectromechanical switches article pdf available in nanotechnology 2427. Pdf carbon thin films from diamond to graphene under. This fem numerical model is used to observe the scaling. However, existing nem switch designs require high actuation voltages and are prone to premature failure due to. Vertical, capacitive microelectromechanical switches. Nanoelectromechanical nem relays control current flow by nanometerscale motion to make or break physical contact between. Request pdf nanoelectromechanical contact switches nanoelectromechanical nem switches are similar to conventional semiconductor switches in that they can be used as relays, transistors. Stress analysis of perforated graphene nanoelectro. Us9171680b2 nanoelectromechanical switch with localized. It requires a container with a liquid solution into physical contact with an.
Sic nanowires were lithographically patterned from a 50 nm thick sic. In 1965 gordon moore stated that the number of transistors on a chip will double every year and a half 2. Modeling nanoelectromechanical switches with random surface roughness daniel connelly and tsujae king liu, fellow, ieee abstractsurface roughness is an important physical feature of nanometerscale electromechanical nem devices but typically is not considered in their numerical analysis. A unique combination of carbon nanotube active elements and conductive diamond. Nanoelectromechanical devices exhibiting dramatically improved robustness through novel material selection are demonstrated. Mechanical devices are shrinking in thickness and width to reduce mass, increase resonant frequency, and lower the force constants of these systems.
Threedimensional 3d direct writing based on the meniscusconfined electrodeposition of copper metal wires was used in this study to develop vertical. The need for more energyefficient solidstate switches beyond complementary metaloxidesemiconductor cmos transistors has become a major concern as the power consumption of electronic integrated circuits ics steadily increases with technology scaling. Threeterminal nanoelectromechanical switch based on tungsten nitride an. Pdf nanoelectromechanical switches for lowpower digital. Compressive stress of the switching element at the moment of contacting the drain electrode can reach 30 gpa. Espinosa nanoelectromechanical nem switches are similar to conventional semiconductor switches in that they can be used as relays, transistors, logic devices and sensors. Request pdf micro and nanoelectromechanical contact switches for logic, memory, and power applications this chapter describes a wide range of technologies for contactbased. This paper reports an amorphous carbon ac contact coating for ultralowpower curved nanoelectromechanical nem switches. Afterwards, electrostatic nanoelectromechanical relays will be introduced in section 4, and attention will be given to the contact resistance of nem switches, followed by an explicit derivation of the performance limits of nembased adiabatic circuits. Nanoelectromechanical nem switches exhibit abrupt switching behavior and nearzero leakage current, which allows them to outperform conventional semiconductor electrical switches.
In this study, the influence of these shortrange forces on cantilever and. Request pdf micro and nanoelectromechanical contact switches for logic, memory, and power applications this chapter describes a wide range of technologies for contact based. Nanoelectromechanical contact switches are broadly categorized by the boundary conditions on the active element. When the source and drain are in contact, current can flow from drain to. Threedimensional 3d direct writing based on the meniscusconfined electrodeposition of copper metal wires was used in this study to develop vertical capacitive microelectromechanical switches. Pdf nextgeneration nanoelectromechanical switch contact.
Li et al precise alignment of single nanowires and fabrication of nanoelectromechanical switch and other test structures 257 fig. Design and characterization of nanoelectromechanical switches. Nanoelectromechanical digital logic circuits using curved. Nanoelectromechanical nem relay devices and technology.
Nanoelectromechanical nem switches are similar to conventional semiconductor switches in that. This paper reports the demonstration of prototype circuits including the first 3stage ring oscillator built using celllevel digital logic elements based on curved nem switches. Nanoelectromechanical switch in co planar waveguide. Carboncarbon nanoelectromechanical switches consisting of an individual carbon nanotube and a diamondlike carbon contact electrode. A dualsiliconnanowires based ushape nanoelectromechanical switch with low pullinvoltage you qian,1,2 liang lou,1 minglin julius tsai,2 and chengkuo lee1,a 1department of electrical and computer engineering, national university of singapore, 4 engineering drive 3, singapore 117576 2institute of microelectronics, astar agency for science, technology and research. Nanoelectromechanical nem switches are similar to conventional semiconductor switches in that they can be used as relays, transistors, logic devices and. Philip wong1, subhasish mitra1,2 1department of electrical engineering stanford university stanford, ca 94305 usa 2department of computer science stanford university. We aim to gain a fundamental understanding of how to achieve low friction and wear in ultrastrong carbonbased materials. Nems typically integrate transistorlike nanoelectronics with mechanical actuators, pumps, or motors, and may thereby form physical, biological, and. Contact materials for nanowire devices and nanoelectromechanical switches volume 36 issue 2 muhammad mustafa hussain, jinhui song. Engineering electrical engineering and computer sciences. We focus upon how reactions change metalmetal conductive contact area, asperity morphology, and plastic deformation. These experiments are in turn modelled computationally using molecular dynamics, allowing better. Nanoelectromechanical switches for lowpower digital.
Nems typically integrate transistorlike nanoelectronics with mechanical actuators, pumps, or motors, and may thereby form physical. Nanoelectromechanical nem contact switches have received significant attention as a promising alternative to current complementary metal oxide. Nanoelectromechanical contact switches nature nanotechnology. Largescale nanoelectromechanical switches based on directly deposited nanocrystalline graphene on insulating substrates. Nanoelectromechanical system an overview sciencedirect.1270 338 1646 727 244 1631 989 766 1001 632 487 834 1118 1629 1628 870 281 1335 659 907 322 964 1656 483 706 1094 1536 693 820 683 1678 903 277 893 29 1488 954 1256 751 568 760 46 1197 1035 1308